In recent years, there are increasing data that support the use of high-dose vasodilator therapy as the initial treatment for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF)
Coughing is a nonspecific reaction to irritation anywhere in the respiratory tract from the pharynx to the lungs, and it is the most common manifestation of lower respiratory tract disease. Any cough that persists for over 3 weeks merits further investigation in the absence of an obvious cause.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is too rapidly hydrolyzed and inactivated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to be of any therapeutic use; however, its action can be mimicked by other substances, namely direct or indirect parasympathomimetics (cholinomimetics).
There are numerous conditions that cause ST-segment elevation (STE) on an ECG that are not attributable to an acute coronary syndrome. In order to avoid errors in diagnosis or management, it is important for the EP to know the differential diagnosis for STE.
Heart murmurs are due to vibrations caused by turbulent flow within the heart. The most common causes are due to left-sided valvular heart disease and tricuspid regurgitation.
Substances acting antagonistically at the M-cholinoceptor are designated parasympatholytics (prototype: the alkaloid atropine; actions shown in red in the panels). Therapeutic use of these agents is complicated by their low organ selectivity.
Approximately 1% to 2% of patients with hypertension will present with a hypertensive emergency, defined as organ dysfunction due to an elevated blood pressure. Importantly, there is no specific blood pressure threshold that identifies a patient with a hypertensive emergency.
Hematemesis is the vomiting of fresh (bright red) or altered ("coffee ground") blood. Melena is the production of black, tarry stools and is due to bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of more than 100 mL of blood.
Antiadrenergics are drugs capable of lowering transmitter output from sympathetic neurons, i.e., “sympathetic tone”. Their action is hypotensive (indication: hypertension) however, being poorly tolerated, they enjoy only limited therapeutic use.
When an acute inferior myocardial infarction is diagnosed, a right-sided ECG should be obtained to exclude the presence of a concomitant right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI). RVMIs can complicate 30% to 50% of acute IMIs.