Aggresive Nitroglycerin Usage in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF)

Aggresive Nitroglycerin Usage in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF)
Phenotypes of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF), their Presentations, and Suggested Therapy

In recent years, there are increasing data that support the use of high-dose vasodilator therapy as the initial treatment for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF)

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Cough and Hemoptysis – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

Cough and Hemoptysis – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations
The Causes of Haemoptysis
  • Post category:Pulmonology

Coughing is a nonspecific reaction to irritation anywhere in the respiratory tract from the pharynx to the lungs, and it is the most common manifestation of lower respiratory tract disease. Any cough that persists for over 3 weeks merits further investigation in the absence of an obvious cause.

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Parasympathomimetics (Cholinomimetics)

Parasympathomimetics (Cholinomimetics)
Direct and indirect parasympathomimetics (cholinomimetics)
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Acetylcholine (ACh) is too rapidly hydrolyzed and inactivated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to be of any therapeutic use; however, its action can be mimicked by other substances, namely direct or indirect parasympathomimetics (cholinomimetics).

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Know the Differential for ST Segment Elevation: It’s More Than Just ACS

Know the Differential for ST Segment Elevation: It’s More Than Just ACS
ST Segment Elevation - Differential Diagnosis

There are numerous conditions that cause ST-segment elevation (STE) on an ECG that are not attributable to an acute coronary syndrome. In order to avoid errors in diagnosis or management, it is important for the EP to know the differential diagnosis for STE.

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Parasympatholytics (Anticholinergics) – Summary

Parasympatholytics (Anticholinergics) – Summary
Effects of parasympathetic stimulation and blockade

Substances acting antagonistically at the M-cholinoceptor are designated parasympatholytics (prototype: the alkaloid atropine; actions shown in red in the panels). Therapeutic use of these agents is complicated by their low organ selectivity.

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Pitfalls in Hypertensive Emergencies

Pitfalls in Hypertensive Emergencies
Drugs for hypertensive emergencies and urgencies

Approximately 1% to 2% of patients with hypertension will present with a hypertensive emergency, defined as organ dysfunction due to an elevated blood pressure. Importantly, there is no specific blood pressure threshold that identifies a patient with a hypertensive emergency.

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Hematemesis, Hematochezia, and Melena – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

Hematemesis, Hematochezia, and Melena – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations
Causes of upper gastrointestinal Bleeding

Hematemesis is the vomiting of fresh (bright red) or altered ("coffee ground") blood. Melena is the production of black, tarry stools and is due to bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of more than 100 mL of blood.

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Antiadrenergics – Summary

Antiadrenergics – Summary
Inhibitors of Sympathetic Tone (Antiadrenergics)

Antiadrenergics are drugs capable of lowering transmitter output from sympathetic neurons, i.e., “sympathetic tone”. Their action is hypotensive (indication: hypertension) however, being poorly tolerated, they enjoy only limited therapeutic use.

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