Acute kidney failure is a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) sufficient to cause uremia. Oliguria (below 15 mL per hour) is often a feature, although nonoliguric renal failure can also occur, particularly in...
Hematuria is abnormal if there are more than 2 red blood cells per high-power field; proteinuria is defined as more than 150 mg of protein per 24-hour collection of urine.
Polyuria is the passing of excessive volumes of urine. Urine output depends on fluid intake and body losses, and typically ranges from 1-3.5 L/day. Polydipsia, the ingestion of excessive volumes of fluid, is usually a consequence of polyuria.
Correct classification of stones is important since it will impact treatment decisions and outcome. Urinary stones can be classified according to the following aspects: stone size, stone location, X-ray characteristics of stone, aetiology of stone formation, stone composition (mineralogy), and risk group for recurrent stone formation.