Shortness of breath (dyspnea) is the subjective sensation of breathlessness which is excessive for any given level of activity. It is important to remember that any component of the respiratory system can cause dyspnea.
Coughing is a nonspecific reaction to irritation anywhere in the respiratory tract from the pharynx to the lungs, and it is the most common manifestation of lower respiratory tract disease. Any cough that persists for over 3 weeks merits further investigation in the absence of an obvious cause.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs in a mechanically ventilated patient more than 48 hours after endotracheal intubation. VAP can occur in up to 27% of all…
Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from a subglottic source. Massive hemoptysis accounts for ~5% to 15% of cases and is often described as more than 600 mL of blood in a 24-hour period.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder that is characterized by noncaseating granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is the most common manifestation, but extrapulmonary manifestations are seen in up to 30% of patients.
Sudden deterioration in RV function can rapidly lead to shock, cardiovascular collapse, and death. In the ED, it is important to rapidly recognize and treat common precipitants of acute decompensation. These include sepsis, tachyarrhythmias, hypoxia, pulmonary embolism (PE), and the abrupt withdrawal of vasodilator medications.