Diuretics – An Overview

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Diuretics - Uses and Side Effects
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Diuretics (saluretics) elicit increased production of urine (diuresis). In the strict sense, the term is applied to drugs with a direct renal action. The predominant action of such agents is to augment urine excretion by inhibiting the reabsorption of NaCl and water.

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Antiadrenergics – Summary

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Inhibitors of Sympathetic Tone (Antiadrenergics)

Antiadrenergics are drugs capable of lowering transmitter output from sympathetic neurons, i.e., “sympathetic tone”. Their action is hypotensive (indication: hypertension) however, being poorly tolerated, they enjoy only limited therapeutic use.

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Beta-Sympatholytics (Beta Blockers)

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Beta Blockers Mechanism of Action and Side Effects
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Beta-Sympatholytics (Beta Blockers) are antagonists of norepiphephrine and epinephrine at β- adrenoceptors; they lack affinity for alpha-receptors. Beta-Blockers protect the heart from the oxygen wasting effect of sympathetic inotropism by blocking cardiac beta-receptors; thus, cardiac work can no longer be augmented above basal levels (the heart is “coasting”). This effect is utilized prophylactically in angina pectoris to prevent myocardial stress that could trigger an ischemic attack.

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Antifungal Drugs – Summary

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Antifungal Drugs - Mechanism of Action
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Infections due to fungi are usually confined to the skin or mucous membranes: local or superficial mycosis. However, in immune deficiency states, internal organs may also be affected: systemic or deep mycosis. Mycoses are most commonly due to dermatophytes, which affect the skin, hair, and nails following external infection.

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Benzodiazepines – Summary

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Biotransformation and Rate of Elimination od Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines modify affective responses to sensory perceptions; specifically, they render a subject indifferent towards anxiogenic stimuli, i.e., anxiolytic action. Furthermore, benzodiazepines exert sedating, anticonvulsant, and muscle-relaxant (myotonolytic) effects.

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Antiepileptics – Summary

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Drugs used in the Treatment and Prophylaxis of Epilepsy (Antiepileptics)

In specific forms of epilepsy, initially a single drug is tried to achieve control of seizures, valproate usually being the drug of first choice in generalized seizures, and carbamazepine being preferred for partial (focal), especially partial complex, seizures.

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