Hematemesis, Hematochezia, and Melena – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

Hematemesis, Hematochezia, and Melena – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations
Causes of upper gastrointestinal Bleeding

Hematemesis is the vomiting of fresh (bright red) or altered ("coffee ground") blood. Melena is the production of black, tarry stools and is due to bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of more than 100 mL of blood.

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Antidiarrheal Agents

Many bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae) secrete toxins that inhibit the ability of mucosal enterocytes to absorb NaCl and water and, at the same time, stimulate mucosal secretory activity. Bacteria or…

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Know how to Identify Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

Know how to Identify Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Risk Factors

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome occurs when elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), or, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), leads to new organ dysfunction. The incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome in the ED has not been reported, but in studies of trauma patients, the incidence is between 1% and 14%.

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Upper Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department

Work-up for upper abdominal pain begins with resuscitation and exclusion of critical diagnoses. Then, through a detailed history and physical, consider all the causes of upper abdominal pain. The differential may then come down to Gallstone etiology vs Gastritis/PUD → will need further imaging based on suspicion (US abdomen)

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Acute Esophageal Varices Hemorrhage

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) results from a variety of conditions that can vary from annoying to life threatening. The determination of nonvariceal versus variceal bleeding is critical as the tests…

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Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

Acute Mesenteric Ischemia
Small Bowel Infarction - Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings

Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) occurs when blood flow to the small intestines is not sufficient for normal bowel function. AMI is a high-risk diagnosis that carries an extremely high mortality…

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