A patient is anemic when the hemoglobin concentration in the blood is less than 13 g/dL (or hematorcit [Hct] less than 39%) in men and 12 g/dL (or Hct less than 36%) in women. The size of the red blood cells gives important clues as to the likely underlying abnormality.
A classic “you’ll miss it if it’s not on your differential,” ascending cholangitis refers to a bacterial infection of the biliary system, requiring both obstruction and bacterial colonization of the biliary tract.
True vertigo is the false perception (illusion) of movement, usually rotational, of a patient of his or her surroundings. This is often accompanied by vomiting, sweating, and pallor...
Recognition of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is tricky, as many of the criteria, such as Ranson, Imrie-Glasgow, and APACHE II, are determined 24 to 48 hours after presentation. This renders them unhelpful in the emergency department (ED) time frame.
Bruising and bleeding arise when there is abnormal hemostasis. Hemostasis is dependent on normal platelet number and function, an intact coagulation pathway, and normal vessel walls.
In adults, by far and away the most common foreign body ingestion is a meat bolus impacting a preexisting anatomic structure. In children, the most common foreign body ingestion are coins.
Jaundice (icterus) is the yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera, and mucosae, which is detectable when serum bilirubin concentrations exceed approximately 2.5 mg/dL. Jaundice can arise as a result of increased red blood cell (RBC) breakdown, disordered bilirubin metabolism, or reduced bilirubin excretion.
Serious ingestions can immediately result in perforation, shock, and even death. Intentional ingestions in adults tend to have more serious consequences. Long-term complications can lead to strictures and an increased risk of esophageal cancer.
Common Causes of Joint Disease include: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Osteoarthritis (OA) Gout Seronegative arthritides: ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, and psoriatic arthritis Septic arthritis
Boerhaave syndrome is a spontaneous rupture of the esophagus. It usually results from barotrauma related to retching or any sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure against a closed glottis.