Diuretics – An Overview

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Diuretics - Uses and Side Effects
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Diuretics (saluretics) elicit increased production of urine (diuresis). In the strict sense, the term is applied to drugs with a direct renal action. The predominant action of such agents is to augment urine excretion by inhibiting the reabsorption of NaCl and water.

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When an Appendicitis Doesn’t Follow the Rules

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Appendicitis - Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings

Classic symptoms of appendicitis include pain that is initially vague and periumbilical followed by a more localized parietal pain in the right lower quadrant. Only 50% of people present with these classic symptoms; in the other 50%, appendicitis can be difficult to diagnosis.

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Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea): Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

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The Causes of Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea)

Shortness of breath (dyspnea) is the subjective sensation of breathlessness which is excessive for any given level of activity. It is important to remember that any component of the respiratory system can cause dyspnea.

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Beyond Diuresis – Treatment Adjuncts in Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

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The emergency management of patients with cardiogenic shock, acute pulmonary edema, or both

Diuretics may not be the preferred initial therapy, however, for those patients with vascular failure, who are often euvolemic, or those with cardiogenic shock, who are often hypovolemic. In these patients, the emergency provider should first optimize preload and afterload reduction with the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), nitrates, or inotropes as indicated.

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Palpitations – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

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Algorithm for the investigation of the patient with palpitations
  • Post category:Cardiology

Always check what the patient means by "palpitations" or clarify what you mean, as the word means different things to different people. It is usually understood as an awareness of the heartbeat. The most common cause is an arrhythmia, although other causes include conditions causing an increase in stroke volume (e.g., regurgitant valvular disease) or conditions causing an increase in cardiac output, often noncardiac causes (e.g., exercise, thyrotoxicosis, anemia, or anxiety).

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Aggresive Nitroglycerin Usage in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF)

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Phenotypes of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF), their Presentations, and Suggested Therapy

In recent years, there are increasing data that support the use of high-dose vasodilator therapy as the initial treatment for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF)

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Cough and Hemoptysis – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

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The Causes of Haemoptysis
  • Post category:Pulmonology

Coughing is a nonspecific reaction to irritation anywhere in the respiratory tract from the pharynx to the lungs, and it is the most common manifestation of lower respiratory tract disease. Any cough that persists for over 3 weeks merits further investigation in the absence of an obvious cause.

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