Beta-Sympatholytics (Beta Blockers)

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Beta Blockers Mechanism of Action and Side Effects
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Beta-Sympatholytics (Beta Blockers) are antagonists of norepiphephrine and epinephrine at β- adrenoceptors; they lack affinity for alpha-receptors. Beta-Blockers protect the heart from the oxygen wasting effect of sympathetic inotropism by blocking cardiac beta-receptors; thus, cardiac work can no longer be augmented above basal levels (the heart is “coasting”). This effect is utilized prophylactically in angina pectoris to prevent myocardial stress that could trigger an ischemic attack.

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Urolithiasis Guidelines

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Approach to Therapy for Idiopathic Urolithiasis

Correct classification of stones is important since it will impact treatment decisions and outcome. Urinary stones can be classified according to the following aspects: stone size, stone location, X-ray characteristics of stone, aetiology of stone formation, stone composition (mineralogy), and risk group for recurrent stone formation.

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Antifungal Drugs – Summary

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Antifungal Drugs - Mechanism of Action
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Infections due to fungi are usually confined to the skin or mucous membranes: local or superficial mycosis. However, in immune deficiency states, internal organs may also be affected: systemic or deep mycosis. Mycoses are most commonly due to dermatophytes, which affect the skin, hair, and nails following external infection.

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Beware of the “Highly Sensitive” Troponin

  • Post category:Cardiology

In 2009, “highly sensitive” troponin assays became available. These assays can detect the presence of troponin at much lower serum levels compared to traditional troponin assays. “Highly sensitive” troponins have a higher sensitivity and negative predictive value, but lower specificity, when compared with traditional troponin assays.

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Be Cautious Diagnosing Anxiety and Panic Disorder in Patients with Chest Pain and Anxiety

Patients with acute life-threatening cardiac or pulmonary conditions frequently present with feelings of panic or impending doom in association with chest pain. This may even be in the setting of a stressful situation and mislead the EP to feel confident that anxiolytic therapy and reassurance is all that may be needed.

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