Know the Differential for ST Segment Elevation: It’s More Than Just ACS

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ST Segment Elevation - Differential Diagnosis

There are numerous conditions that cause ST-segment elevation (STE) on an ECG that are not attributable to an acute coronary syndrome. In order to avoid errors in diagnosis or management, it is important for the EP to know the differential diagnosis for STE.

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Pitfalls in Hypertensive Emergencies

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Drugs for hypertensive emergencies and urgencies

Approximately 1% to 2% of patients with hypertension will present with a hypertensive emergency, defined as organ dysfunction due to an elevated blood pressure. Importantly, there is no specific blood pressure threshold that identifies a patient with a hypertensive emergency.

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Hematemesis, Hematochezia, and Melena – Differential Diagnosis, Examination and Investigations

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Causes of upper gastrointestinal Bleeding

Hematemesis is the vomiting of fresh (bright red) or altered ("coffee ground") blood. Melena is the production of black, tarry stools and is due to bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of more than 100 mL of blood.

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Antiadrenergics – Summary

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Inhibitors of Sympathetic Tone (Antiadrenergics)

Antiadrenergics are drugs capable of lowering transmitter output from sympathetic neurons, i.e., “sympathetic tone”. Their action is hypotensive (indication: hypertension) however, being poorly tolerated, they enjoy only limited therapeutic use.

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Beta-Sympatholytics (Beta Blockers)

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Beta Blockers Mechanism of Action and Side Effects
  • Post category:Pharmacology

Beta-Sympatholytics (Beta Blockers) are antagonists of norepiphephrine and epinephrine at β- adrenoceptors; they lack affinity for alpha-receptors. Beta-Blockers protect the heart from the oxygen wasting effect of sympathetic inotropism by blocking cardiac beta-receptors; thus, cardiac work can no longer be augmented above basal levels (the heart is “coasting”). This effect is utilized prophylactically in angina pectoris to prevent myocardial stress that could trigger an ischemic attack.

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