Do Not Confuse Mobitz Type I and Mobitz Type II Atrioventricular (AV) Block

Do Not Confuse Mobitz Type I and Mobitz Type II Atrioventricular (AV) Block
Key ECG Characteristics of Mobitz Type I and Type II AVB

Second-degree AVB is divided into two types, Mobitz type I and type II. It is important for the emergency provider to be able to distinguish between these two types of second-degree AVB, as treatment, disposition, and prognosis can be vastly different.

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Do not confuse Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia with Atrial Fibrillation

Do not confuse Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia with Atrial Fibrillation
Comparison of Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter
  • Post category:Cardiology

The most common misdiagnoses of Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia are atrial fibrillation (Afib) and sinus tachycardia. Since the treatment of each of these dysrhythmias is different, it is imperative for the emergency provider to correctly diagnose MAT.

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Intra-arterial Thrombus Formation and Antithrombotics (Antiplatelets)

Intra-arterial Thrombus Formation and Antithrombotics (Antiplatelets)
Inhibitors of platelet aggregation

Activation of platelets, e.g., upon contact with collagen of the extracellular matrix after injury to the vascular wall, constitutes the immediate and decisive step in initiating the process of primary hemostasis, i.e., cessation of bleeding. However, in the absence of vascular injury, platelets can be activated as a result of damage to the endothelial cell lining of blood vessels. Among the multiple functions of the endothelium, the production of NO and prostacyclin plays an important role.

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Anticoagulants and Fibrinolytics

Structurally related to vitamin K, 4-hydroxycoumarins act as “false” vitamin K and prevent regeneration of reduced (active) vitamin K from vitamin K epoxide, hence the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Coumarins are well absorbed after oral administration. Their duration of action varies considerably. Synthesis of clotting factors depends on the intrahepatocytic concentration ratio of coumarins to vitamin K.

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Hypothermia Algorithm

Mild hypothermia → tachypnea, tachycardia, hyperventilation, ataxia, shivering, impaired judgment, “cold diuresis” Moderate → bradycardia, hypoventilation, CNS depression, loss of shivering, slow A-fib + other arrhythmias Severe → pulmonary edema,…

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