Antidiarrheal Agents

Many bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae) secrete toxins that inhibit the ability of mucosal enterocytes to absorb NaCl and water and, at the same time, stimulate mucosal secretory activity. Bacteria or…

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Intra-arterial Thrombus Formation and Antithrombotics (Antiplatelets)

Intra-arterial Thrombus Formation and Antithrombotics (Antiplatelets)
Inhibitors of platelet aggregation

Activation of platelets, e.g., upon contact with collagen of the extracellular matrix after injury to the vascular wall, constitutes the immediate and decisive step in initiating the process of primary hemostasis, i.e., cessation of bleeding. However, in the absence of vascular injury, platelets can be activated as a result of damage to the endothelial cell lining of blood vessels. Among the multiple functions of the endothelium, the production of NO and prostacyclin plays an important role.

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Cardiac Glycosides

Diverse plants are sources of sugarcontaining compounds (glycosides) that also contain a steroid ring and augment the contractile force of heart muscle : cardiotonic glycosides / cardiosteroids, or “digitalis”. If…

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Drugs Acting on Smooth Muscle

Bronchodilators Narrowing of bronchioles raises airway resistance, e.g., in bronchial or bronchitic asthma. Several substances that are employed as bronchodilators are: β2-sympathomimetics (given by pulmonary, parenteral, or oral route)methylxanthine theophylline…

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Inhibitors of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosteron System

ACE inhibitors, such as captopril and enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril, occupy the enzyme as false substrates. Affinity significantly influences efficacy and rate of elimination. Enalaprilat has a stronger and longerlasting effect than does captopril.

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Calcium Antagonists (Ca-channel blockers)

The term Calcium (Ca2+) antagonist is applied to drugs that inhibit the influx of Ca2+ ions without affecting inward Na+ or outward K+ currents to a significant degree. Other labels are Ca-entry blocker or Ca-channel blocker.

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Vasodilators – overview

The distribution of blood within the circulation is a function of vascular caliber. Venous tone regulates the volume of blood returned to the heart, hence, stroke volume and cardiac output.…

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Antibiotics acting on DNA

Antibiotics acting on DNA
Antibiotics acting on DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) serves as a template for the synthesis of nucleic acids. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) executes protein synthesis and thus permits cell growth. Synthesis of new DNA is a…

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